求知若飢，虛心若愚（ Stay Hungry , Stay Foolish）
Apple CEO Steve Jobs 對史丹佛畢業生演講全文
第一個故事，是關於人生中的點點滴滴如何串連在一起。我在里德學院（Reed College）待了六個月就辦休學了。 到我退學前，一共休學了十八個月。那麼，我為什麼休學？（聽眾笑）這得從我出生前講起。
我的親生母親當時是個研究生，年輕未婚媽媽，她決定讓別人收養我。她強烈覺得應該讓有大學畢業的人收養我，所以我出生時，她就準備讓我被一對律師夫婦收養。 但是這對夫妻到了最後一刻反悔了，他們想收養女孩。所以在等待收養名單上的一對夫妻，我的養父母，在一天半夜裡接到一通電話， 問他們「有一名意外出生的男孩 ，你們要認養他嗎？」而他們的回答是「當然要」。
後來，我的生母發現，我現在的媽媽從來沒有大學畢業， 我現在的爸爸則連高中畢業也沒有。 她拒絕在認養文件上做最後簽字。直到幾個月後，我的養父母保證將來一定會讓我上大學，她的態度才軟化。
我沒有宿舍，所以我睡在友人家裡的地板上，靠著回收可樂空罐的退費五分錢買吃的。每個星期天晚上得走七哩的路，繞過大半個鎮 去印度教的 Hare Krishna 神廟吃頓好料，我喜歡 Hare Krishna
神廟的好料。就這樣追隨我的好奇與直覺，大部分我所投入過的事務，後來看來都成了無比珍貴的經歷（And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on ）。
舉個例來說。當時里德學院有著大概是全國最好的書寫教育。校園內的每一張海報上，每個抽屜的標籤上，都是美麗的手寫字。因為我休學了，可以不照正常選課程序來，所以我跑去上書寫課。 我學了 serif 與 sanserif 字體，學到在不同字母組合間變更字間距，學到活字印刷偉大的地方。 書寫的美好、歷史感與藝術感是科學所無法掌握的，我覺得這很迷人。我沒預期過學這些東西能在我生活中起些什麼實際作用，不過十年後，當我在設計第一台麥金塔時，我想起了當時所學的東西，所以把這些東西都設計進了麥金塔裡，這是第一台能印刷出漂亮東西的電腦。 如果我沒沉溺於那樣一門課裡，麥金塔可能就不會有多重字體跟等比例間距字體了。 又因為 Windows 抄襲了麥金塔的使用方式（聽眾鼓掌大笑）。
我再說一次，你無法預先把點點滴滴串連起來；只有在未來回顧時， 你才會明白那些點點滴滴是如何串在一起的（ you can't connect the dots look-ing forward; you can only connect them looking backwards ）。所以你得相信，眼前你經歷的種種，將來多少會連結在一起。你得信任某個東西，直覺也好， 命運也好，生命也好，或者業力。這種作法從來沒讓我失望，我的人生因此變得完全不同。（ Jobs停下來喝水）
我很幸運－年輕時就發現自己愛做什麼事。我二十歲時，跟 Steve Wozniak 在我爸媽的車庫裡開始了蘋果電腦的事業。
我們拚命工作，蘋果電腦在十年間從一間車庫裡的兩個小夥子擴展 ! 成了一家員工超過四千人、市價二十億美金的公司。在那事件之前一年推出了我們最棒的作品－麥金塔電腦（ Macintosh ），那時我才剛邁入三十歲；然後，我被解僱了。 我怎麼會被自己創辦的公司給解僱了？（聽眾笑）
我見了創辦 HP 的 David Packard跟創辦Intel的 Bob Noyce，跟他們說很抱歉我把事情給搞砸了。我成了公眾眼中失敗的示範，我甚至想要離開矽谷。
雖然我被否定了，可是我還是愛做那些事情，所以我決定從頭來過 。 當時我沒發現，但現在看來，被蘋果電腦開除，是我所經歷過最好的事情。成功的沉重被從頭來過的輕鬆所取代， 每件事情都不那麼確定，讓我自由進入這輩子最有創意的年代。接下來五年，我開了一家叫做 NeXT 的公司，又開一家叫做 Pixar 的公司，也跟後來的老婆（Laurene）談起了戀愛。
Pixar接著製作了世界上第一部全電腦動畫電影，玩具總動員（ Toy Story），現在是世界上最成功的動畫製作公司（聽眾鼓掌大笑）。
然後，蘋果電腦買下了 NeXT，我回到了蘋果，我們在 NeXT發展的技術成了蘋果電腦後來復興的核心部份。我也有了個美妙的家庭。我很確定，如果當年蘋果電腦沒開除我，就不會發生這些事情。
這帖藥很苦口，可是我想蘋果電腦這個病人需要這帖藥。 有時候，人生會用 磚頭打你的頭。不要喪失信心。
我確信我愛我所做的事情， 這就是這些年來支持我繼續走下去的唯一理由（I'm convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved what I did ）。
你得找出你的最愛，工作上是如此，人生伴侶也是如此。 你的工作將佔掉你人生的一大部分，唯一真正獲得滿足的方法就是做你相信是偉大的工作，而唯一做偉大工作的方法是 愛你所做的事（ And the only way to do great work is to love what you do ）。
如果你還沒找到這些事，繼續找，別停頓。盡你全心全力，你知道你一定會找到。而且，如同任何偉大的事業，事情只會隨著時間愈來愈好。所以，在你找到之前，繼續找，別停頓。（聽眾鼓掌， Jobs 喝水）
當我十七歲時，我讀到一則格言，好像是「把每一天都當成生命中的最後一天，你就會輕鬆自在。（ If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you'll most certainly be right ）」（聽眾笑） 這對我影響深遠， 在過去 33 年裡，我每天早上都會照鏡子，自問：「如果今天是此生最後一日，我今天要做些什麼？」 每當我連續太多天都得到一個「沒事做」的答案時， 我就知道我必須有所改變了。 提醒自己快死了，是我在人生中面臨重大決定時，所用過最重要的方法。因為幾乎每件事－所有外界期望、所有的名聲、所有對困窘或失敗的恐懼－在面對死亡時，都消失了，只有最真實重要的東西才會留下（ Remembering that I'll be dead soon is the most important tool I've ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because
almost everything - all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure - these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important ）。
這是我最接近死亡的時候，我希望那會繼續是未來幾十年內最接近的一次。經歷此事後，我可以比先前死亡只是純粹想像時，要能更肯定地告訴你們下面這些：沒有人想死。即使那些想上天堂的人，也想活著上天堂 。 （聽眾笑）但是死亡是我們共同的終點，沒有人逃得過。這是註定的，因為死亡很可能就是生命中最棒的發明，是生命交替的媒介，送走老人們，給新生代開出道路。
現在你們是新生代，但是不久的將來，你們也會逐漸變老，被送出人生的舞台。抱歉講得這麼戲劇化，但是這是真的。你們的時間有限，所以不要浪費時間活在別人的生活裡。不要被教條所侷限 -- 盲從教條就是活在別人思考結果裡。不要讓別人的意見淹沒了你內在的心聲。最重要的，擁有追隨自己內心與直覺的勇氣，你的內心與直覺多少已經知道你真正想要成為什麼樣的人（have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become），任何其他事物都是次要的。（聽眾鼓掌）
在我年輕時，有本神奇的雜誌叫做 《 Whole Earth Catalog》， 當年這可是我們的經典讀物。那是位住在離這不遠的 Menlo Park 的Stewart Brand發行的，他把雜誌辦得很有詩意。那是 1960年代末期，個人電腦跟桌上出版還沒出現，所有內容都是打字機、剪刀跟拍立得相機做出來的。 雜誌內容有點像印在紙上的平面 Google，在 Google 出現之前 35年就有了：這本雜誌很理想主義，充滿新奇工具與偉大的見解。
Stewart 跟他的團隊出版了好幾期的《 Whole Earth Catalog》， 然後很自然的，最後出了停刊號。當時是 1970 年代中期，我正是你們現在這個年齡的時候。在停刊號的封底，有張清晨鄉間小路的照片，那種你四處搭便車冒險旅行時會經過的鄉間小路。在照片下印了行小字：
求知若飢，虛心若愚（Stay Hungry , Stay Foolish ）。
求知若飢，虛心若愚（Stay Hungry , Stay Foolish ）。
Report, June 14, 2005
got to find what you love,' Steve
is the text of the Commencement address by Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple Computer and
of Pixar Animation Studios, delivered on June 12, 2005.
am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one of the finest
universities in the world. I never graduated from college. Truth be told, this
is the closest I've ever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell
you three stories from my life. That's it. No big deal. Just three stories.
first story is about connecting the dots.
dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as
a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit. So why did I drop
started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed college
graduate student, and she decided to put me up for adoption. She felt very
strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so everything was all
set for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his wife. Except that when I
popped out they decided at the last minute that they really wanted a girl. So my
parents, who were on a waiting list, got a call in the middle of the night
asking: "We have an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?" They said:
"Of course." My biological mother later found out that my mother had
never graduated from college and that my father had never graduated from high
school. She refused to sign the final adoption papers. She only relented a few
months later when my parents promised that I would someday go to college.
17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that was
almost as expensive as Stanford, and all of my working-class parents' savings
were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I couldn't see the
value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and no idea how
college was going to help me figure it out. And here I was spending all of the
money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out and trust
that it would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but looking back
it was one of the best decisions I ever made. The minute I dropped out I could
stop taking the required classes that didn't interest me, and begin dropping in
on the ones that looked interesting.
wasn't all romantic. I didn't have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in
friends' rooms, I returned coke bottles for the 5¢ deposits to buy food
with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get one
good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I
stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless
later on. Let me give you one example:
College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the
country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was
beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn't have to take
the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do
this. I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of
space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography
great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science
can't capture, and I found it fascinating.
of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years
later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to
me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with
beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in
college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally
spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, its likely that no personal
computer would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped
in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the
wonderful typography that they do. Of course it was impossible to connect the
dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very, very clear looking
backwards ten years later.
you can't connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking
backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your
future. You have to trust in something - your gut, destiny, life, karma,
whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the
difference in my life.
second story is about love and loss.
was lucky – I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started Apple
in my parents garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had
grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over
4000 employees. We had just released our finest creation - the Macintosh - a
year earlier, and I had just turned 30. And then I got fired. How can you get
fired from a company you started? Well, as Apple grew we hired someone who I
thought was very talented to run the company with me, and for the first year or
so things went well. But then our visions of the future began to diverge and
eventually we had a falling out. When we did, our Board of Directors sided with
him. So at 30 I was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my
entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating.
really didn't know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the
previous generation of entrepreneurs down - that I had dropped the baton as it
was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to
apologize for screwing up so badly. I was a very public failure, and I even
thought about running away from the valley. But something slowly began to dawn
on me – I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed
that one bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to
didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best
thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was
replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything.
It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.
the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company named Pixar,
and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar went on
to create the worlds first computer animated feature film, Toy Story, and is now
the most successful animation studio in the world. In a remarkable turn of
events, Apple bought NeXT, I retuned to Apple, and the technology we developed
at NeXT is at the heart of Apple's current renaissance. And Laurene and I have a
wonderful family together.
pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn't been fired from Apple.
It was awful tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it. Sometimes life
hits you in the head with a brick. Don't lose faith. I'm convinced that the only
thing that kept me going was that I loved what I did. You've got to find what
you love. And that is as true for your work as it is for your lovers. Your work
is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly
satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great
work is to love what you do. If you haven't found it yet, keep looking. Don't
settle. As with all matters of the heart, you'll know when you find it. And,
like any great relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll
on. So keep looking until you find it. Don't settle.
third story is about death.
I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: "If you live each day as
if it was your last, someday you'll most certainly be right." It made an
impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the
mirror every morning and asked myself: "If today were the last day of my
life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?" And whenever the
answer has been "No" for too many days in a row, I know I need to
that I'll be dead soon is the most important tool I've ever encountered to help
me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything – all external
expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure - these things
just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important.
Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap
of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no
reason not to follow your heart.
a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the morning, and
it clearly showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn't even know what a pancreas
was. The doctors told me this was almost certainly a type of cancer that is
incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer than three to six months.
My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor's
code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids everything you
thought you'd have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. It means
to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible
for your family. It means to say your goodbyes.
lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy, where they
stuck an endoscope down my throat, through my stomach and into my intestines,
put a needle into my pancreas and got a few cells from the tumor. I was sedated,
but my wife, who was there, told me that when they viewed the cells under a
microscope the doctors started crying because it turned out to be a very rare
form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and
I'm fine now.
was the closest I've been to facing death, and I hope its the closest I get for
a few more decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you with a
bit more certainty than when death was a useful but purely intellectual concept:
one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don't want to die to get
there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped
it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best
invention of Life. It is Life's change agent. It clears out the old to make way
for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you
will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but
it is quite true.
time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life. Don't be trapped
by dogma - which is living with the results of other people's thinking. Don't
let the noise of other's opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most
important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow
already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.
I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth Catalog,
which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a fellow named
Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with
his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960's, before personal computers and
desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters, scissors, and polaroid
cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before Google
came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great
and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it
had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was
your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early
morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you
were so adventurous. Beneath it were the words: "Stay Hungry. Stay
Foolish." It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry.
Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate
to begin anew, I wish that for you.
Hungry. Stay Foolish.
you all very much.